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Vijay K. Jain

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    English translation by Vijay K. Jain; Edited by Vijay K. Jain; Blessings (Foreword) by His Holiness Ācārya 108 Vidyānanda Muni Ācārya Kundakunda’s (circa 1st century BCE) Pravacanasāra (also written as Pravacanasara or Pravachanasara) is among the most popular Jaina Scriptures that are studied with great reverence by the ascetics as well as the laymen. Consciousness manifests in form of cognition (upayoga) – pure-cognition (śuddhopayoga), auspicious-cognition (śubhopayoga) and inauspicious-cognition (aśubhopayoga). Pure-cognition represents conduct without-attachment (vītarāga cāritra). Perfect knowledge or omniscience (kevalajñāna) is the fruit of pure-cognition (śuddhopayoga). The soul engaged in pure-cognition (śuddhopayoga) enjoys supreme happiness engendered by the soul itself; this happiness is beyond the five senses – atīndriya – unparalleled, infinite, and imperishable. Omniscience (kevalajñāna) is real happiness; there is no difference between knowledge and happiness. Delusion (moha), the contrary and ignorant view of the soul about substances, is the cause of misery. The soul with attachment (rāga) toward the external objects makes bonds with karmas and the soul without attachment toward the external objects frees itself from the bonds of karmas. The stainless soul knows the reality of substances, renounces external and internal attachments (parigraha) and does not indulge in the objects-of-the-senses.
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    Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Samādhitantram = Supreme Meditation / English translation by Vijay K. Jain; Edited by Vijay K. Jain; Blessings (Foreword) by His Holiness Ācārya 108 Vidyānanda Muni Parallel Title : Samādhiśataka Main Author : Ācārya Pūjyapāda Other Author : Vijay K. Jain Publisher: Dehradun : Vikalp Printers, 2017 Subjects : Jainism – Doctrines – Early works to 1800 Jaina Philosophy – Early works to 1800 Meditation, Pure Soul Description : XLII, 202 p. ; 23 cm. ISBN: 978-81-932726-0-2 Format : Book; hard bound General note : Includes indexes Language note : In Sanskrit; translation in Hindi and English; explanatory notes and prefatory matter in English. Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s (circa 5th century CE) Samādhitantram is a spiritual work consisting of 105 verses outlining the path to liberation for the inspired soul. Living beings have three kinds of soul – the extroverted-soul (bahirātmā), the introverted-soul (antarātmā), and the pure-soul (paramātmā). The one who mistakes the body and the like for the soul is the extroverted-soul (bahirātmā). The extroverted-soul spends his entire life in delusion and suffers throughout. The one who entertains no delusion about psychic dispositions – imperfections like attachment and aversion, and soul-nature – is the introverted-soul (antarātmā). The knowledgeable introverted-soul disconnects the body, including the senses, from the soul. The one who is utterly pure and rid of all karmic dirt is the pure-soul (paramātmā). Samādhitantram expounds the method of realizing the pure-soul, the light of supreme knowledge, and infinite bliss. Realization of the pure-soul is contingent upon discriminatory knowledge of the soul and the non-soul, and meditating incessantly on the pure-soul, rejecting everything that is non-soul. Samādhitantram answers the vexed question, ‘Who am I?’ in forceful and outrightly logical manner, in plain words. No one, the ascetic or the householder, can afford not to realize the Truth contained in the treatise, comprehend it through and through, and change his conduct accordingly.
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    Soul substance (jīva dravya) is ubiquitous but unseen. Driving force within each one of us, it has been, since time immemorial, a subject matter of research by philosophers, religious leaders and laity. Still, ambiguity and misconceptions prevail as regard its real nature.
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    Editor: Vijay K. Jain Foreword: Acharya 108 Vidyanand Muni Language: Sanskrit, Hindi, English Prefatorial: English ISBN 10: : 81-903639-4-8 Published 2012 by Vikalp Printers, Dehradun, India About the book: Shri Amritchandra Suri's Purushartha Siddhyupaya is a matchless Jaina text that deals with the conduct required of the householder (Shravaka). In no other text that deals with the conduct required of the householder we see the same treatment of complex matters such as the transcendental and the empirical points of view, cause and effect relationships, and injury and non-injury, maintaining throughout the spiritual slant. The basic tenet of Jainism - non-injury or Ahimsa - has been explained in detail in the present work.
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    Ācārya Samantabhadra’s Ratnakarandaka-śrāvakācāra – Ratnakaranda, in short – comprising 150 verses, is a celebrated and perhaps the earliest Digambara work dealing with the excellent path of dharma that every householder (śrāvaka) must follow. All his efforts should be directed towards the acquisition and safekeeping of the Three Jewels (ratnatraya), comprising right faith (samyagdarśana), right knowledge (samyagjñāna) and right conduct (samyakcāritra), which lead to releasing him from worldly sufferings and establishing him in the state of supreme happiness. The treatise expounds an easy-to-understand meaning of ‘right faith’: To have belief, as per the Reality, in the sect-founder or deity (āpta or deva), the scripture (āgama or śāstra), and the preceptor (guru). It specifies criteria to distinguish between the real and the counterfeit enabling one to eliminate follies attributable to wrong faith. Only the householder who has right faith establishes himself on the path to liberation. Right faith is the treasure chest of whatever is propitious and worthy; wrong faith of whatever is inauspicious and contemptible. After laying the foundation called the right faith, Ācārya Samantabhadra goes on to complete the superstructure known as the Three Jewels (ratnatraya) with the remaining two elements, right knowledge and right conduct. The householder who has attained right faith on the destruction of darkness of delusion is fit to attain right knowledge and right conduct. He gets rid of the conduits of demerit (pāpa) comprising injury, falsehood, stealing, unchastity, and attachment to possessions. Further, he observes three subsidiary vows (guņavrata), and four instructional vows (śikşāvrata). Giving up of the body in a manner that upholds righteousness (dharma) on the occurrence of a calamity, famine, senescence, or disease, from which there is no escape, is called the vow of sallekhanā. Sallekhanā has been termed as the final fruit or culmination of penance (religious austerity) and, therefore, all persons with right faith, the ascetic as well as the householder, look forward to attaining voluntary, passionless death at the appropriate time. The treatise finally describes the eleven stages (pratimā) of the householder’s conduct.
  6. Version 1.0.0

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    Ācārya Samantabhadra’s Ratnakarandaka-śrāvakācāra – Ratnakaranda, in short – comprising 150 verses, is a celebrated and perhaps the earliest Digambara work dealing with the excellent path of dharma that every householder (śrāvaka) must follow. All his efforts should be directed towards the acquisition and safekeeping of the Three Jewels (ratnatraya), comprising right faith (samyagdarśana), right knowledge (samyagjñāna) and right conduct (samyakcāritra), which lead to releasing him from worldly sufferings and establishing him in the state of supreme happiness. The treatise expounds an easy-to-understand meaning of ‘right faith’: To have belief, as per the Reality, in the sect-founder or deity (āpta or deva), the scripture (āgama or śāstra), and the preceptor (guru). It specifies criteria to distinguish between the real and the counterfeit enabling one to eliminate follies attributable to wrong faith. Only the householder who has right faith establishes himself on the path to liberation. Right faith is the treasure chest of whatever is propitious and worthy; wrong faith of whatever is inauspicious and contemptible. After laying the foundation called the right faith, Ācārya Samantabhadra goes on to complete the superstructure known as the Three Jewels (ratnatraya) with the remaining two elements, right knowledge and right conduct. The householder who has attained right faith on the destruction of darkness of delusion is fit to attain right knowledge and right conduct. He gets rid of the conduits of demerit (pāpa) comprising injury, falsehood, stealing, unchastity, and attachment to possessions. Further, he observes three subsidiary vows (guņavrata), and four instructional vows (śikşāvrata). Giving up of the body in a manner that upholds righteousness (dharma) on the occurrence of a calamity, famine, senescence, or disease, from which there is no escape, is called the vow of sallekhanā. Sallekhanā has been termed as the final fruit or culmination of penance (religious austerity) and, therefore, all persons with right faith, the ascetic as well as the householder, look forward to attaining voluntary, passionless death at the appropriate time. The treatise finally describes the eleven stages (pratimā) of the householder’s conduct. About the author: Having had his schooling from Mhow and Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh, Vijay K. Jain (b. 1951) did his graduation in Electronics Engineering from Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, and Post-Graduation in Management from Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. Mr. Jain had been associated, as a visiting faculty teaching marketing management and entrepreneurship, with several institutions including National Institute for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development (NIESBUD), Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), and University of Roorkee (now IIT Roorkee). He is an Ex-President of Dehradun Management Association. He has written/edited several books: Marketing Management for Small Units (1988). Jain Dharma : Mangal Parichaya (1994). From IIM-Ahmedabad to Happiness (2006). Āchārya Umāsvāmi’s Tattvārthsūtra – with Hindi and English Translation (2011). Āchārya Kundkund’s Samayasāra – with Hindi and English Translation (2012). Shri Amritchandra Suri’s Purusārthasiddhyupāya – with Hindi and English Translation (2012). Ācārya Nemichandra’s Dravyasamgraha – with Authentic Explanatory Notes (2013). Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Istopadeśa – The Golden Discourse (2014). Ācārya Samantabhadra’s Svayambhūstotra – Adoration of the Twenty-four Tīrthankara (2015). Ācārya Samantabhadra’s Āptamīmāmsā (Devāgamastotra) – Deep Reflection On The Omniscient Lord (2016). Ācārya Samantabhadra’s Ratnakarandaka-śrāvakācāra = The Jewel-casket of Householder’s Conduct (2016). Mr. Jain is the proprietor of Vikalp Printers, a high-end printing and publishing firm, based in Dehradun, India.
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    Ācārya Samantabhadra’s Aptamimāmsa (Devāgamastotra) = Deep Reflection On The Omniscient Lord / English translation by Vijay K. Jain; Edited by Vijay K. Jain; Blessings (Foreword) by Ācārya 108 Vidyānanda Muni Aptamimamsa by Ācārya Samantabhadra (2nd century CE) starts with a discussion, in a philosophical-cum-logical manner, on the Jaina concept of omniscience and the attributes of the Omniscient. The Ācārya questions the validity of the attributes that are traditionally associated with a praiseworthy deity and goes on to establish the logic of accepting the Omniscient as the most trustworthy and praiseworthy Supreme Being. Employing the doctrine of conditional predications (syādvāda) – the logical expression of reality in light of the foundational principle of non-absolutism (anekāntavāda) – he faults certain conceptions based on absolutism. He finally elucidates correct perspectives on issues including fate and human-effort, and bondage of meritorious (punya) or demeritorious (pāpa) karmas.
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    With Authentic Explanatory Notes Dravyasamgraha is one of the finest classical Jaina texts, composed by His Holiness Acarya Nemichandra (c. 10th century CE). It deals primarily with the Realities (tattvas) that contribute to world process. The conduct required for attaining the ultimate goal of liberation follows from the knowledge of these Realities. Both, the transcendental and the empirical points of view, have been considered while explaining the nature of substances, souls and non-souls. It will be of much use to scholars worldwide interested in pursuing the study of Jaina epistemology.
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    Istopadesa by Acarya Pujyapada is a concise work of 51 didactic verses leading the reader from the empirical to the transcendental, from the mundane to the sublime, through an experiential process of self-realization, rather than through a metaphysical study of the soul-nature. Concise but deep in import, Istopadesa unambiguously establishes the glory of the Self. It is an essential reading for the ascetic. The householder too who ventures to study it stands to benefit much as the work establishes the futility of the worldly objects and pursuits, and strengthens right faith, the basis for all that is good and virtuous.
  10. All worldly souls (samsārī jīvas) are embodied according to their individual spiritual status, and are subject to the cycle of births and deaths. The body, associated with each soul, is subject to growth, old age, decay and death. Death entails that the soul must quit the existing body to acquire a fresh body consistent with and determined by the record of the karmic conditions, of which the soul itself is a repository. One of the most contentious issues in metaphysics is the relationship between the soul and the body. The Jaina metaphysics holds that the two are entirely different entities but live together for a certain period of time and then depart. From the point of view of the modes in bondage, owing to the influence of karmas, the soul is corporeal in the embodied state. From the point of view of its pure nature, the soul is incorporeal. Though the soul is one with the body in the embodied state, it is different from the body because of its distinctive characteristics. The corporeal nature of the soul is predicated in the non-absolutistic or relativistic sense only. From one point of view the soul is incorporeal, but from another point of view it is corporeal. A person is deluded when he identifies an animate object, soul (jīva), as inanimate, and an inanimate object, non-soul (ajīva), as animate. A deluded person breeds attachment to the body which is intimately bound to him, and with persons or objects like friends, clothes, houses, riches and geographical territories, which are not so bound to him. He desires their possession, ownership and company, and their separation brings about grief to him. He spends his whole life in acquiring and then protecting them, and their inevitable separation causes unbearable misery to him. He lives under the fear of death. All human beings who have not met with an untimely death pass through eight experiential stages in life – birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, youth, adulthood, old age, and death. We are mostly dependent on others till we reach the stage of youth. In these formative years, most decisions pertaining to our upbringing are taken by others. As we reach adulthood, we become aware of our inherent likes and dislikes, strengths and weaknesses, and start pondering over matters like our objectives and goals in life. We take decisions on our career, family, and social life. By the time we reach the stage of advanced adulthood we have enough experience to look back to and vision to look forward to. We are mature enough to understand the meaning of life, its pleasures and pains. We are able to observe the ups and downs in the lives of people around us. More importantly, we are able to reflect on whether there is something we must do regarding the direction of our life, or live life just as it comes. In our worldly life we seek pleasure and try to avoid pain and suffering. No sooner do we make headway in acquiring and then using an object of pleasure than a feeling of its inadequacy creeps into our mind. We want something superior in terms of both, the quality and the quantum of pleasure. We become slaves of pleasure. Typically, we over-indulge at night, get a terrible hangover the next morning, but crave for the same thing again at the fall of night. We get overpowered by the senses and become addicted to pleasure. As the harmful effects of this addiction on our mind and body surface in due course of time, the realization dawns that perhaps we have moved too far ahead in the wrong direction. We get disheartened to see that pleasure is short-lived and is followed, sooner or later, by pain and suffering. Despondency sets in; we wish to do something about it but it is too late by then. Stark reality that we must leave behind, voluntarily, all material possessions strikes in our face. There is no escape from this plain truth; if we do not volunteer to do it ourselves, death will perform the act for us, rather ruthlessly. The idea of separation from our prized possessions leaves us in great pain and misery. Enjoyment of a few pleasures in the past is no solace to a grieving soul. Realization of this basic truth early in life can save us from much hardship and agony later on. Wise men start looking at the realities of life and ways to cope with these as soon as the realization dawns that they have just one or two score years of the present life left. They clearly apprehend that the worldly existence is full of misery; disease, old age, separation from kith and kin, accident, natural disaster, failure, and death are but some of the realities of life that one has to run into. They take corrective actions to make the best use of the remaining years. While they commiserate with people living in conditions of poverty, deprivation, impairment or disease, they do not allow despondency to set within themselves. They are not particularly attracted towards the pleasures that worldly objects have to offer. They realize that pain and suffering are inextricably linked to the worldly life and are attributed to our karmas. Our virtuous karmas in the past have provided us with whatever good and enjoyable we have in this life and we must now make efforts to engage ourselves only in actions that will provide us with joyous feelings in the remaining years of this life, and the next. When a man turns his consciousness exclusively to the Ideal of the pure soul, he is saved from indulging in activities that result in perennial entrapment in the world. Knowing the body as unconscious, mortal, and a product of karmas, one who does not undertake activities pertaining to the body performs the essentials of detachment from the body. The soul has the intrinsic attribute of darting upward and the body, being physical matter, is an instrument of pulling the soul downward. The body, being a direct outcome of karmas, is absolutely worth dissociation and detachment for anyone who is treading the path to liberation. Only with such discrimination between the soul and the body can one develop interest and inclination towards the soul and disinterest and disinclination towards anything that is antithetical to the soul. The way to make human birth meaningful is through renunciation of worldly pleasures, meditation, austerities, propagation of true faith, and finally attaining a pious and passionless death by relinquishing the body through the method of sallekhanā. Ācārya Amritchandra in Purusharthasiddhyupāya1 avers: 177. When death is imminent, the vow of sallekhanā is observed by progressively slenderizing the body and the passions. Since the person observing sallekhanā is devoid of all passions like attachment, it is not suicide. 178. When a man, actuated by passions, puts an end to his life by means of stopping breath, or by water, fire, poison, or weapon, he is certainly guilty of suicide. 179. In the observance of sallekhanā, since passions, the instrumental cause of himsā, are subdued, sallekhanā is said to be leading to ahimsā. _______________ 1. Jain, Vijay K. (Ed.) (2012), “Shri Amritchandra Suri’s Purusharthasiddhyupāya – with Hindi and English Translation”, Vikalp Printers, Dehradun.
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    Adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankara Acarya Samantabhadra’s Svayambhustotra (2nd century CE) is a fine composition in Sanskrit dedicated to the adoration of the Twenty-four Tîrthankara, the Most Worshipful Supreme Beings. Acarya Samantabhadra was one of the most impelling proponents of the Jaina doctrine of anekantavada, a philosophical system which maintains that reality has multifarious aspects and that a complete apprehension of it must necessarily take into account all these aspects. Non-appreciation of this jewel of Jainism has caused the other philosophical systems fall into the trap of one-sided, incomplete, and unsustainable dogmas that fail to explain the Truth. Through its 143 verses Svayambhustotra not only enriches reader’s devotion, knowledge, and conduct but also frees his mind from blind faith and superstitions. Rid of ignorance and established firmly in right faith, the reader’s mind experiences ineffable tranquility and equanimity. The book has two useful Appendices. Appendix-1 attempts to familiarize the reader with the divisions of empirical time that are used extensively in Jaina cosmology. Appendix-2 provides a glimpse of life stories, adapted from authentic Jaina texts, of the Twenty-four Tirthankara. As proclaimed by Acarya 108 Vidyanand Muni, Svayambhustotra is an essential reading for all – ascetics and laymen.
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